Reinterpreting Study on Migraine & Brain Damage

Headache specialist Dr. Christina Peterson‘s comment on Migraines Linked With Brain Damage points out that one study never reveals absolute truth. Nor are articles written for the general public usually preceeded by the analysis necessary to critically evaluate research findings. As Dr. Peterson writes, it is “distressing and somewhat
irresponsible that every finding in the medical literature becomes a
sound bite for the media.”

“For anyone who thinks the
information presented here is condescending–please note that most of
what Kerrie has put forward here has been written by journalists, and
not by medical experts
. It has been paraphrased from the original
medical studies
. I personally find it distressing and somewhat
irresponsible that every finding in the medical literature becomes a
sound bite for the media.

“It is the unfortunate fact that not every study can be taken as
absolute gospel truth
. This is why we call our ideas “hypotheses,” and
we set up studies to test our hypotheses. Generally speaking, we
consider them to be working hypotheses until newer ideas are discovered
to expand our understanding of the concept. And even then, we are not
fully comfortable until new findings are confirmed by several studies.

“A good chunk of what we are taught in the early part of medical
school is how to interpret studies in the medical literature–how to
analyze the validity of study design, how to be certain the statistical
analysis was done correctly, and how to tell if a given study actually
measured anything that matters.

“There are a number of issues presented here. White matter lesions
(those white spots on MRI scans that some migraineurs get) may or may
not reflect anything to do with brain damage
. We do not know yet.
However, there was a paper presented this past week in Boston at the
Academy of Neurology meeting that suggests not. But I would want to see
further confirmation before I would be certain about anything. White
matter lesions, however, are unlikely to cause cognitive damage, as it
is the gray matter that does the thinking

In the study that suggests “older” migraine sufferers have no
cognitive decline–this was determined by conducting a 10 minute test
called the Mini-Mental Status Exam, which is not particularly rigorous
Genetic material was also collected for a test called APOE4,
which has been associated with Alzheimer’s. However, very recent
research conducted at Yale has demonstrated that the APOE4 genetic
allele is associated with psychosis in Alzheimer’s, and not with
cognitive decline or loss of function.
(The migraine researchers could
not have known that when they began their study some years ago.)

“In Boston, I saw microscopy pictures of blood vessels, brain cells,
and receptors specially stained to show what happens during cortical
spreading depression. This was research done at Harvard-MIT. It was
fairly clear that there is oxygen loss in the cellular areas in between
the capillaries during
cortical spreading depression (CSD). Does this
cause cognitive loss? We don’t know.
The type of researcher who looks
at cellular and subcellular structures is generally not the same type
of researcher who studies cognitive responses in a whole person.

“Research can be excruciatingly slow. We have, for example, known
about CSD since the 1930s, but it took time before it was proven to be
associated with migraine, and even longer before we have been able to
more clearly understand its significance. We are only now learning
exactly what happens chemically during CSD.

“The take-home message is that not everyone with migraine is the same, and that, NO–it’s NOT JUST A HEADACHE!


One Response to “Reinterpreting Study on Migraine & Brain Damage”

  1. zane Says:

    The statement “the grey matter does the thinking” is not really accurate… what we call grey matter is the cell bodies of neurons which then have long extensions of the cell body called “processes” (axons and dendrites) which connect one neuron to another, and through these processes signals are passed from neuron to neuron… the so-called “white matter” are the neuronal processes (axons mainly) that are projecting from one set of cell bodies (neurons) to another set somewhere else, where they are passing information. So white matter is important to “thinking”… as thinking is the overall computational output of neurons in grey matter passing signals to other areas of the brain through white matter tracks. Without white matter there might be local talk within a cell body group, but no talk at a distance…

    Thanks for the information. I certainly don’t know much about the inner workings of the brain!


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